Industrial risk analysis

This activity started in 1982 following the adoption of Community Directive 82/501/EEC relating to the major-accident risk industries (directive ratified in Italy by Decree of the President of the Republic no. 277 and subsequent decrees of the Ministry of the Interior and the Ministry of the Environment). Currently, in the year of entry into force of the third edition of the Seveso III directive in our country (Legislative Decree. 105/2015), Tecsa S.r.l. represents a point of reference for many production companies of national and international importance subject to fulfilment of the requirements of this regulatory body.

Tecsa S.r.l. has effectively conducted numerous industrial risk analyses for many Italian and foreign plants and industries e.g. refineries, petrochemical and chemical substance depots, chemical process plants, terrestrial and marine terminals, gasification plants, onshore and offshore fuel oil and gas extraction facilities, deposits of toxic and hazardous substances, dust movement and transportation systems.

Here are some of the techniques generally used.

Risk Identification

Hazard and Operability Studies (Hazops); Failure Modes, Effects and Critically Analysis (FMECA); Safety Audits; “what if” Analysis; Preliminary Hazard Analysis (PHA); Incident Reviews; Hazard Identification (HAZID), Bow-Tie, Fault Tree Analysis (FTA) and Event Tree Analysis (ETA).

The Bow-Tie method lends itself particularly well to:

  • the analysis of accidents and near-accidents (also described in the book on fire risks);
  • substantive assessment of risk in complex infrastructures where there are numerous scenarios to be taken into account and where the findings must be used to carry out a valuation of KPIs including for the purpose of prioritisation in risk management (“risk ranking”) and comparisons (such as between different sites regarding the same ownership/management which may be that of a group of railway stations, port terminals and freight terminals, etc.).

 Analysis of Consequences

Mathematical modelling of explosions, leakages and consequences, Bleve, UVCE, Thermal Radiation (from pool and jet fires), through the use of modern and validated calculation codes, both traditional and working with techniques based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD). These include simplified methods used by the authorities that have jurisdiction for external emergency planning (e.g. Ministerial Decree 25 February 2005). The analysis of consequences is carried out with instruments and validated computational codes and with a degree of study commensurate with the status of projects and with customer requirements. Starting from 2015 TECSA S.r.l. has been conducting PHA and QRA analysis for process industry not only with CFD instruments but also with mostly simplified 3D tools (particularly for studies of “facility siting” and “plant layout”) including the Add-On 3D Explosion Module of DNVGL for Phast Professional (UK). The method is at an intermediate level of study between the simplified/traditional codes and the CFD codes, thus completing extension of the services of TECSA S.r.l. The three dimensions considered in the conduct of studies allows later studies to benefit from a suitable and consistent degree of study with emphasis on the definition of the positioning criteria and typology of the Fire & Gas systems using “F&G Mapping” tools in 3D.

TECSA S.r.l. is able to carry out, within the framework of studies relating to the domino effects, specialised studies of fragment projection through the use of specific computational codes and codes for the modelling of damage on process equipment and piping in order to determine the damage and the subsequent modelling of loss of containment.

Decision Analysis

Dynamic and integrated decision analysis, decision trees, Balanced Scorecards, AHP. Balanced Scorecards are used within the definition and monitoring of KPIs associated with management and are a foundation of the HSE-D information platform of TECSA, that is the digital board of process safety for the HSE Manager.

Reconstruction of the risk area

Using computer codes and methodologies recognised internationally (e.g. TNO RiskCurves).

For a more comprehensive overview of the services in this area, please refer to the specific chapter.

Human Reliability Analysis (HRA)

For a more comprehensive overview of the services in this area, please refer to the specific chapter.